Nicolò Valigi | articles | talks

Concurrency and parallelism in ROS 1 and ROS 2: application APIs

Many of the ROS stacks I've worked have had trouble with unexpected latency and jitter. These performance issues are often caused by the peculiar way in which the framework manages concurrency and parallelism. This article discusses the basics of concurrency in ROS 1 and 2, and how to use their APIs to get better control over performance.

This article is partially based on my presentation at ROSCon 2019.

The typical ROS stack today is a patchwork of mostly-open-source code running in independent nodes, and thus, in separate OS processes. More refined setups use nodelets to take advantage of threading and reduce serialization overhead. However, it remains true that many stacks leave a lot of performance on the table due to sub-optimal use of concurrency primitives. At a human level, it seems that there's small intersection between the people who enjoy Robotics algorithms and those who like to tinker with Linux threading primitives.

This article is the first of a series that tries to peek under the covers of how concurrency works in ROS 1 (and 2) and present tools to improve behavior at the application, framework, and OS level. In this first article, we're going to look at the application and framework level, essentially describing how ROS APIs like callbacks map to OS threads. As such, we're mostly going to be focusing on the ROS runtime and application facing APIs. The next article is going to continue this journey all the way from OS threads to CPU cores.

The basic ROS execution model

ros::init(), which is the first line of code in any ROS 1 node, spawns a couple of threads to manage incoming messages and run the corresponding callbacks. As shown below, the network thread listens for incoming messages on TCP sockets and pushes them on the callback queue after deserializing them. The spinner thread pops messages from the queue and runs the user code.

If the callback execution time is short enough, everything runs well even if the CPU has a single core. As shown below, messages arrive at a fixed rate and wake up the spinner thread, which runs the user-provided code and goes to sleep again, well before the next message is expected to come in.

However, if the callback execution time increases, execution periods would in theory begin to overlap with each other. This is clearly impossible on a single thread, as only one callback instance can be running at any given time. Therefore incoming messages would start to queue up on the subscriber side (this is all handled by the ROS runtime, with no intervention of knowledge required from users).

The size of the incoming message queue is set on the subscribe call. A sane value might be 0, so that no message gets dropped (at the cost of increased latency).

Multithreaded spinning

Dropping messages at the framework level is undesiderable in many cases, because the application logic can usually deal with the backlog in smarter ways. If indeed that's the case, the hope might be to throw to more hardware at the problem. This means running callbacks in parallel (ie spinning) over multiple CPU cores.

In ROS 1, this is achieved by replacing the default ros::spin() call with either a MultiThreadedSpinner or an AsyncSpinner:

ros::MultiThreadedSpinner spinner(2); // 2 threads

// or

ros::AsyncSpinner spinner(2);

Both will spawn a number of spinner threads, but MultiThreadedSpinner will block the current thread, whereas AsyncSpinner will do all its work in the background.

Side note

Neither multithreaded spinner actually works as expected in this particular example. By default, callback executions are protected by a mutex such that only one callback per subscription can execute at any given time. The fix is simple:

ros::SubscribeOptions ops;
ops.template init<std_msgs::String>("chatter", 1000, chatterCallback);
ops.allow_concurrent_callbacks = true;
ros::Subscriber sub = nh.subscribe(ops);

End of side note

With a multithreaded spinner, two or more threads can run callbacks in parallel, that is at the same time, provided that there are enough available CPU cores in the system. This might increase throughout to the point where queueing is avoided, as shown below:

Of course, parallelism brings some headaches in terms of synchronization and locking because multiple threads might now be accessing shared state at the same time. Sprinkle std::mutex accordingly.

Priority inversion

Now let's make things a bit more realistic:

Here we added a second callback (orange) on a second topic. The new callback has higher priority than the old one. For example, we might have a planner that receives both occupancy map updates and ranging messages for close obstacles. If a new ranging message comes in saying that the robot is about to crash, the planner should replan right away, rather than queueing up this important message behind less time-sensitive occupancy map updates.

With a plain multi-threaded spinner, the high-priority callback might be stuck waiting behind the low-priority (green) one. If this callback is on the critical path from sensor to controls, we're increasing the reaction time of the robot for no good reason.

If an orange message arrives within the time segments highlighted with the thick black bars, there are no threads available to pick it up, and it will be queued behind another lower-priority task. This is exactly what we don't want to happen, and is called priority inversion in the literature of embedded systems.

One might be tempted to increase the number of worker threads to avoid queueing, but that is really just a band-aid, and not a real solution. For reasons that we'll discuss in the next article, the number of callback threads should track the number of CPU cores, and not the number of independent queues in the system.

Multiple callback queues

A better approach is to divide the callbacks in two or more queues according to their priority, create multiple spinner threads, and assign a queue to each of the spinners. The easiest way to achieve this in ROS 1 is by partitioning subscriptions across different NodeHandles:

// Create a second NodeHandle
ros::NodeHandle secondNh;
ros::CallbackQueue secondQueue;
secondNh.subscribe("/high_priority_topic", 1,
// Spawn a new thread for high-priority callbacks.
std::thread prioritySpinThread([&secondQueue]() {
    ros::SingleThreadedSpinner spinner;

The concept is similar in ROS 2, with the Executor interface replacing spinners:

// Create a Node and an Executor.
rclcpp::executors::SingleThreadedExecutor executor1;
auto node1 = rclcpp::Node::make_shared("node1");

// Create another.
rclcpp::executors::SingleThreadedExecutor executor2;
auto node2 = rclcpp::Node::make_shared("node2");

// Spin the Executor in a separate thread.
std::thread spinThread([&executor2]() {

With this change, the ROS runtime will assign callbacks from different subscriptions to their dedicated spinner threads. Therefore, it's possible to make sure that there's always a thread available to pick up high-priority work. Of course, this does not guarantee that high-priority callbacks will actually be worked on by the CPU, because the Linux scheduler could decide to let some other thread use the CPU instead.


In fact, this is exactly the topic of the next article. Up until now, we have presented the tools (multiple spinners and queues) that ROS provides to control how incoming messages and their callbacks are mapped onto OS threads. In the next article, we're going to complete the discussion and learn how the Linux kernel maps these threads onto physical CPU cores.